One single note of the shakuhachi produces from one up to 30 harmonics making the flute getting close
to a reed instrument. Due to this complexity of sound, the shakuhachi offers the possibility of multiple dynamics and sounds.

About fingerings, made with 5 holes, it offers patterns made out of specific digital combinations.

Some texts online, in French and in English
- Composing for shakuhachi, Thoughts about metre, fingering, muraiki and glissando
by Ramon Humet (composer, Es)
in the European Shakuhachi Journal, vol. 1, 2007
Toru Takemitsu, November Steps - Oppositions et complémentarités des traditions
by Jean-Yves Bosseur (composer, Fr), 2005
Sound Japan
by Christopher Yohmei Blasdel (shakuhachi master, Jp)
in the Japan Foundation Newsletter, 2000

Some references works, in English
- Flute and Shakuhachi, several articles,
amongst some written by Yoshikazu Iwamoto, Frank Denyer, Pierre-Yves Artaud, etc.
edited by Kondô Jô and Joaquim Benitez
Contemporary Music Review, volume 8, Part 2, 1993